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Earth And Space Created In Wonderful Layers

- Published in Arabnews On 6.9.2013

Earth and Space Created in Wonderful Layers

Say (O Muhammad): Disbelieve ye verily in Him, Who created the earth in Two Days, and ascribe to Him rivals? He Is the Lord of the Worlds.

He placed therein firm mountains, rising above it, and blessed it, and measured therein, its sustenance, in four Days, for all those who ask.

Then turned He to the heaven, when it was smoke, and said unto it and the earth come ye together willingly or loath. they said: We come obedient.

Then He completed them as seven heavens, In two Days, and inspired in each heaven its mandate, and adorned the lower heaven with lamps (stars) and rendered it inviolable. That is the decree (of Him) the Exalted in Might, the All- Knowing. (Quran 41/9-12)

From the aforesaid verses I only discuss those facts which disclose creation of earth with cosmological precision.

‘The heavens and the earth were joined together, then We clove them asunder’(Quran 21/30). The scientists confirmed that the sun and earth were part of solar nebula, it also contained galaxies and other stars.

Allah clove them asunder with a Big Bang, the earth and all the galaxies with their stars and planets got separated from the Solar nebula. The earth while separated was intensely burning hot, gradually it cooled down. It was surrounded with crust having thickness of thirty to 50 kilometers. Still it contains burning hot magma and gases which come out in volcanic eruptions.

Allah said: ‘He created the earth in two Days’.

The days mentioned here are the two stages. The day mentioned in the verse is not the day of 24 hours. When the earth separated from Solar nebula twenty four’s day did not exist. The Quran mentions a Day measure thereof fifty thousand years (70/4)

Therefore, the two Days are the stages for the formation of earth to become good for living for all its creations.

The first stage after separation, the earth was intensely hot because of the density in its matter. The scattering of the contents over the vast space lowered such intensity. The cooling and condensing process continued as Allah created the atoms of all the elements internalizing electrostatic forces to keep the nuclear balance till the end of the universe.

Continuous rains on the hot liquid mass further cooled down the earth till the entire earth was enveloped by 30 to 50 kilometer layer of solid crust.

The above facts make it crystal clear how Allah with His magnanimous power of creation created earth and other celestial bodies, and created a great system of protection of earth by providing it with mountains to maintain its balance while rotating with a tremendous speed of 65000 miles per hour on its orbit and rotating 1038 miles per hour on its axis, more over He created the power of gravitation between the celestial bodies to keep them in their tracks and orbits.

The Quran mentioned: Allah is He Who raised up the heavens without visible columns that you can see. (Al-Rad/2) Scholar held these invisible columns clearly point to the power of gravitation.

Allah created mountains over the earth so that it may not deviate from its course. As Allah said: Verily Allah grasps the heavens and the earth, that they do not deviate, and if they were to deviate, there is not one to grasp them after Him. (35/41)

It is evident for a body during its motion in the space, it may shake or tremble and if the earth shakes or deviates from its course nobody can bring it back to its appointed course except Allah. However the verse proves its motion.

Allah the Great Creator who created invisible columns between stars and planets. Those columns are the gravitational force between stars and planets to keep them in their orbits. The earth is also a planet, the mountains protect its balance and gravitation keeps it in its track while running with a tremendous speed. These were the first two stages mentioned as two Days Allah Appointed Earth’s Sustenance in Four Days, How?

Arabic word ‘Qoot’ means sustenance. Sustenance for a living being is food to give him strength to survive. What can make the earth to sustain its existence? The above facts made it clear that Allah created over it mountains to keep its balance while running on its orbit, and He created gravitational force between the celestial bodies to keep them in their tracks. Thus the planet earth maintains its course in its orbit with gravitational force.

But this much protection was not enough. We know it was part of solar nebula and keeps in its interior burning intensely hot gases and magma, which come out in volcanic eruptions. These magma and gases may explode the earth altogether.

To make the earth a safe place of abode for all His creations He created layers in its interior. Earth’s interior can be separated into four layers.

The first layer is the crust. It is divided into two parts, Continental Crust and Oceanic Crust.

Continental crust is composed of igneous rock, metamorphic and sedimentary rock. Its thickness ranges from 30 km to 50 km. The thickness of Oceanic crust ranges between 5 to 10 km. Oceanic crustal rocks are composed of igneous rocks basalt etc.

The layer directly below the crust is Mantle. Its thickness is 2900 km. It is composed of solid rock. The mantle makes about 70% of earth’s mass.

Next to mantle is outer core. The outer core is mostly iron. Composition of core is metallic (iron, nickel alloy). Its thickness ranges from 2890 km to 5150 km. Outer core composes 30% of earth’s mass.

Inner core- This is the inner most part of the earth. From the boundary with the outer core to the center of the earth, a distance of about 1220 km is the solid sphere of the inner core. The temperatures here reach between 5,000 to 7,000 degrees C.

However these layers protect the earth as a whole from intensely burning hot gases, and make the earth safe from explosion by these gases.

Allah also protected the earth and its animate beings by providing the layers in the atmosphere. The scholars held that the earth is surrounded by the atmosphere, which is the body of air or gasses that protects the planet earth and enables life. Most of our atmosphere is located close to the earth’s surface. The air of our planet is 79% nitrogen and just under 21% oxygen, the small amount remaining is composed of carbon dioxide and other gases. There are five distinct layers of the earth.

Troposphere: The layer of the atmosphere closest to the earth is Troposphere. This layer is where weather occurs. It begins at the surface of the earth and extends out to about 4-12 miles. The temperature of the troposphere decreases with height and helps in formation of clouds.

Stratosphere: It is above the troposphere which extends to about 30 to 35 miles above the earth surface. 91% of the Ozone in earth's atmosphere is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere. It ranges approximately 10 km to 50 km above Earth, although the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.

Mesosphere: From about 35 t0 50 miles above the surface of the earth lies mesosphere. The temperatures reach a low of -1200C.

Above these layers are thermosphere from 50 miles up to 400 miles above the surface. Temperature increases with height, it rises as high as 20000 C.

Exosphere is above the top of thermosphere to 6,200 miles above the earth’s surface.

Each layer has a particular function, ranging from forming rain preventing harmful rays, from reflecting radio waves and averting the harmful effects of meteors..

The Ozone layer is a layer in Earth’s atmosphere which absorbs most of the Sun’s ultra violet rays, which cause skin cancer and cataracts.

The opening as a big hole in Ozone layer is seen over the Antarctic. That has given rise to global warming and dangerous climate change triggering a rapid melting of the polar ice sheets.

Another immense protection Allah provided for earth is its magnetic field, which originates predominantly in its deep interior. This magnetic field is confined in limited space surrounding the earth. This limited space and its outer boundary are called the magnetosphere of the earth. It is established that solar corona extends beyond the earth’s atmosphere. It may be noted that solar corona is a region which is heated to over a million degrees Celsius.

The space between the sun and the planet earth is filled with plasma gas called the solar wind. During the period of solar activity, the solar wind blows radically outward from the sun at the speed of 183 to 311miles per second. Electrons and the positive ions in the solar wind when approach the earth are repelled by the magnetic field of the earth.

Hence the magnetosphere is a safeguard for the earth and its inhabitants.

However, we have seen that Allah protected earth by providing it inside layers and layers in the atmosphere to make it safe abode for living creations on the earth. What an amazing creation with a well devised minute cosmological system for its existence while traversing with tremendous speed on its orbit and axis with billion tons of weight.

Allah said: And measured therein, its sustenance, in four Days, for all those who ask. In the first two Days i.e. in the first two stages Allah created the earth, after its creation Allah sustained it with strong and very thick layers inside it as explained above to save it from getting exploded by burning hot magma. Then this earth and living beings over it required further protection from extremely hot solar wind, so Allah made around it various layers as mentioned above including Ozone layer and magnetosphere to repel electrons and the positive ions in the solar wind providing a perfect safeguard for Allah’ s creations on the earth. These four days are the four phases. Thus we see that this universe is created in six Days i.e. in six phases. As explained above a Day thereof of is fifty thousand years. Thus our universe came into existence in many thousands of years. Is it not most amazing that the Quran in 7th century gave the details of creation of earth with cosmological precision? This is the proof that the Quran is Allah’s Book revealed to His Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and Islam envisages deliverance of humankind in the Hereafter.

- By Ahmad Wahaj Al-Siddiqui