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Hajj In Islam

- Published in Muslim World League Journal On Oct.2016

By Ahmad Wahaj Al-Siddiqui Al-Taimi Legal adviser Published in Muslim League Journal in Oct. 2016

 

 Hajj In Islam

 

   The edifice of Islam stands on five pillars very first pillar is to  say:

La-Ilaha Illallah Muhammad  Rasul Allah i.e. There is no god except Allah (God the Unique) and Muhammad is His prophet. This very utterance by heart is essential to embrace Islam, the second pillar is to perform five daily prayers, third pillar is to fast for the whole month of Ramadan, the fourth pillar is to pay zakat, (the poor due given to poor or poverty striven people etc.) and the fifth pillar is Hajj,

    Allah said: And Hajj is a duty that man owes to Allah (for)  those who can afford a way there to. (Quran-Al-Imran /97) Hajj is performed only in Makkah. Allah said: Verily, the first sanctuary appointed for mankind is that at Bacca (Makkah), a blessed place, a guidance to the world. (Quran-Al-Imran 96)

    Hajj is a blessed act, which bring unity in the whole Muslim nation. Islam has no color distinction. All the Muslims of any cast or creed stand unified, they all are equal to Allah (God the Unique).

   Allah said: the Hajj pilgrimage is in well known months, so whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein, there is no sexual intercourse (with wife), nor lewdness, nor disputing during the Hajj. And whatsoever good you do, Allah knoweth it. And take provisions for the journey; surely the best provision is piety and fear Me O men of understanding. (2/197).

    Ibn Abbas said the months of Hajj are: Shawwal, Dhu-al Qaida, and up to tenth Dhu-al-Hijjah (Ibn Jarir).Allah has appointed  these months for the pilgrimage. All other months are for the performance of  Umrah. It is not proper to take Ihram ( two seamless white sheets) with intention of Hajj except in the aforesaid months of Hajj. But Umrah is allowed all the year round. The last date to take Ihram is 9th Dhul-Hijjah, which intercepts

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tenth night. Any one reaching Arafat before the dawn of tenth gets Hajj. Almost no rites of Hajj remain to be performed after the days of Mina are over, that is why Ibn Abbas specified the time up to tenth of Dhul-Hijjah. But in certain cases like  women in menstruation or in postpartum period etc. is allowed circumambulation after she is clean even that consumes the month of Dhul-Hijjah.as told by the Prophet (peace be upon him) reported by Mardawiyah.    

 ‘There is no sexual intercourse with wife, nor lewdness nor disputing during the Hajj.’ Explaining this verse Ibn Abbas said Arabic Rafath is insinuation to coition with spouse, and ‘Al-Fisooq’ includes all sins, and ‘Al-Jidal’ disputing is abusing and quarrelling with your companion (Al-Tabrani).

     What makes the Hajj null and void?

     Al-Rafath is to commit sexual intercourse with women but while performing Hajj Allah has prohibited sexual intercourse with wife till one accomplishes the last obligatory rite i.e. Tawaf ‘Al- Ifadah’ or tawaf ‘Al-ziarah’ Not only this but all actions relating to sexual intercourse including seduction and palpation and intrusion of penis into vagina are prohibited. It is unanimous that anyone who indulges in sexual intercourse with his wife before Arafat, his Hajj is null and void. He has to come again to perform Hajj. ‘Nor Lewdness’ Ibn Masud narrated the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: To abuse a Muslim is lewdness and to fight him is infidelity. (agreed tradition)

   Aby Hurairah reported, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Who ever performs Hajj and did not commit coition nor lewdness all his sins will be forgiven and will become as the day he was born from his mother. Al-Baihaqui, Muslim).

   Ibn Umar said; ‘Al-Jidal’ disputing during Hajj is to use abusive language and wrangling. (Muhammad bin Ishaque)

 

 

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 Jabir bin Abdullah reported, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whosoever accomplishes the rituals of Hajj without hurting a Muslim by his tongue or by his hands all his sins are forgiven (Abd bin Humaid)

    The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: No act is most beloved to Allah other that Jihad in the way of Allah and the Hajj is accepted by the grace of God the Unique not having any coition or lewdness or wrangling.( Abu Noaim from Ibn Omer)

 ‘Take provisions for the journey surely the best provision is piety’ Ibn Abbas said: the people used to leave their relations for Hajj without taking provisions saying: We perform pilgrimage of Allah’s House, won’t he feed us. So Allah directed : ‘Take provisions for the journey and the best provision is piety’ So that you may stay out of begging from the people.

    ‘ There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord. Then when you leave Arafat, remember Allah by sacred monument. Remember as He hath guided you, although before you were of those who were astray.’ (2/198)

    ‘Bounty’ here means trade for livelihood. As Allah said: When the prayer is over, then disperse in the land and seek the Bounty of Allah.’ (62/10)  Ibn Abbas said they considered a sin to trade during Hajj season, Allah therefore, sent the verse: There is no sin if you seek the bounty of your Lord, during Hajj season. (Al-Baihaqui)

    Ibn Abbas explaining: ‘There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord’ There is no wrongdoing if any one buys and sells before or after taking Ihram i.e. trading during pilgrimage. (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim)

    ‘Then when you leave Arafat’ Arafat is a land about eighteen kilometers east of Makkah. The special ceremony known as ‘Wakoof Arafat’ is performed here on the ninth Dhul-Hijjah. Ali bin Abi Talib said Allah sent Gabriel to Abraham for performing Hajj with him till they came to Arafat, when they came to Arafat, Gabriel said: Did you Know i.e. Arift. Gabriel had also come before it, that is why it is named Arafah.

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(reported Abdul Razzak). It is also reported by Al-Dhohak that when Adam was sent down, he was dropped in India and Eve at Jeddah. They stood in search of either, there union occurred at Arafat on the Day of Arafah, and therefore, the plane was named Arafat (Khazin)

    Hajj is to reach Arafat?  In a report of Al-Baihaqi, Ibn Abbas narrated, whoever reached Arafat (in Ihram) before dawn of Fajr, he gets Hajj. If he could not  reach in the aforementioned time, he loses his Hajj.

       The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: The Hajj is Arafat he said 3 times. Whoever enters Arafat before dawn of Fajr, he gets Hajj. (Ahmad)

   The time of ‘Waqoof Arafat’ begins after the midday of 9th Dhul-Hijjah till before Fajr of the tenth Dhul-Hijjah the Day of Immolation.. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) stood at Arafat and said This is Arafah and it is Mauqaf (stopping place for worship) and entire Arafat is Mauqaf, then he pressed on after the sunset towards Muzdalifah. (Abu Dawood, Al-Tirmizi from Ali)

   In a long tradition reported by Muslim and Abu Dawwod, Jabir narrated the Apostle of Allah ((peace be upon him) kept standing in worship till sunset completely and making Usama to sit behind him he proceeded on.

  Who left Arafat before sunset? Anyone who left Arafat before sunset and did not return what has he to do for accomplishing his Hajj? Imam Shafai and Ahmad both said he has to make a sacrifice in charity at Makkah, but if he returned to Arafat even after sunset nothing is over him. Abu Hanifa and his companions and Thuri said if he returns to Arafat he will have to make a sacrifice. Imam Malik said he has to perform Hajj in the coming year offering a sacrifice in charity. He is as if he did not perform Hajj.

    The virtues of the Day of Arafat?

     The Day of Arafat is known as the day of great virtues and immense rewards remission from all sins big or small to the pilgrims. Abu Qatada reported  the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: I take it for certain that

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Allah (God the Unique) will grant remission from all sins done in the past year and of the coming year as well. (Ibn Maja)

    The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: To implore Allah on the Day Arafat is the best supplication. And the best what I and the Prophets before me said: There is no God but He is the Unique, He has no partners whatsoever in His Godhood. He is the only Sovereign of all the world and for Him is the Great Glory, Who is able to do all things. (Al-Tirmizi),

   The mother of the believers Aesha (may Allah be pleased with her) reported. The Apostle of Allah , (peace be upon him)  said: There  is no day other than the Day of Arafah, that Allah emancipates a large number from the (Hell) Fire and verily He the Gracious and the Mighty comes close and takes pride over the angels saying what do they want? i.e. His pleasure. (Muslim, Al-Nasai, Ibn Maja, Al-Hakim)

   The Apostle of Allah  (peace be upon him) said; On the Day of Arafah, never the devil was seen so degraded, hated and irritated being thrown away i.e. because he saw the mercy of Allah over  His slaves, even on the Day of Badr invasion for what he saw? What did he see O Apostle of Allah! He saw Gabriel posting the angels in battle order. (Moatta Imam Malik)

    The Apostle of Allah   (peace be upon him) prayed for the forgiveness of his Ummah. His supplication  was acceded  telling  him; I will give remission to all except the tyrants. They will have to give account for their tyranny and chastisement. The Prophet said O Lord! If thou wishes you can admit the oppressed into the Heaven and forgive the oppressor. He could not have acceptance for this imploration, but when he reached Muzdalifa he entreated anew. His prayer was granted. Immediately thereafter he laughed.  Abu Bakar and Umar both said: May  thou be ransomed with my father and mother, we did never expect you to laugh this hour. What made you to laugh? May Allah keep you laughing. When the enemy of God the Lucifer came to know that Allah has accepted my

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prayer for the forgiveness  of my Ummah he began to throw dust over his head and said woe to him. So I laughed at his impatient restlessness.(Ibn Maja)

   In a report of Abdullah bin Omer bin Oas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Verily Allah takes pride on the presence of the people at Arafah on the eve of Arafah over the angels,  and says look at Our slaves they came to me unkempt, covered with dust from far and wide and from every deep defile you bear witness I have forgiven them.  There is no other day except the Day of Arafah that Allah emancipates a large number from the Fire. (Ahmad, Al-Tabrani)

     Ali bin Abi Talib reported that the supplication of Apostle  (peace be upon him)  : on the Day of Arafah was, O Allah! We exult Thy praise. And my prayers and my sacrifice and my living and my dying for Thee and to Thee I return O Allah! I take Thy shelter from the torture in the grave and the (evil) whispers into the heart and the ending of my affair in frustration. O Allah!  I beseech Thee all the good with which the wind comes and take Thy shelter from the evil with which the wind comes. (Al-Tirmizi, Al-Baihaqui)             

     Ibn Abbas narrated that the supplication of Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) at the eve of Arafah was: O Allah Thou know my stature and hear my speech and Thou know what is open and hidden in me and nothing about my affair is concealed from Thee. I am miserable and stricken with poverty. I request Thy help and shelter. And I am meek afraid and do confess my sins I do beseech Thee the beseeching of an indigent and invoke Thee the invocation of an humble sinner. I implore Thee the imploration of a scared and aggrieved who bowed down his neck in submission, whose eyes did rain, whose body did yield humbly to Thee, and who subdued his nose.  O Allah! Don’t make me unless in prayer to Thee and be with me compassionate and merciful.  (Al-Tabrani)

    On the eve of Arafah Abdullah bin Omer used to raise his voice and say O Allah! Guide us the right guidance, embellish us with righteousness

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and favor us with Thy forgiveness. (Then in a low voice) he said: O Allah! Endow us with nice, blessed and bounteous subsistence. You did order us to implore and decreed on Thyself with its acceptance and Thou never fails in Thy promise, nor violates the covenant. O Allah! Bestow the good which Thou lovest and make it easy for us to achieve. And what Thou hates keep us away from it and never take back the Islamic faith after Thou have granted us. (Al-Tabrani)

    Anas bin Malik said: He was sitting with the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him).in Khaif Mosque (at Mina) that a man from Ansar and other from Thaquif came to him, they saluted him and  said: We came to inquire from you. He said: If you wish I can tell you what for you have come? They said: Tell us that will raise in us the faith and belief.  He said to Ansari: you came to ask me the reward for your exit from your house intending this inviolable place and for your Tawaf and two rakat of your prayers after Tawaf and about your hastening between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa and for stay at Arafat and pelting stones on Jamarat and for your Tawaf-al Ifadah. The men said by whom who sent you with truth we did come to ask for these things.

    He said: For your departure from your home intending this inviolable place you are rewarded with a virtue for each step your camel takes and erased a misdeed of you. And for your Tawaf of this house (Kaaba), a virtue for each step is written and a misdeed is erased, and a grade is raised for you in the Heaven (Jannah). And two rakat after Tawaf are equal to emancipation of a slave from among the children of Ishmael in reward and hastening between Al-Safa and Al-Marwa is equal to liberate seventy slaves and for your stay at Arafat, Allah the Gracious comes close to the heaven of the world and takes pride over the angels and says: Look at my slaves they came from far and wide and every deep ravine unkempt and covered with dust wishing my mercy and forgiveness. If their sins had been like particles of sand and like the rain drops and like the foam of the sea and equal to stars in sky, I would have pardoned them. And says: O

 

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My slaves! You go and for whom you intercede have been forgiven And for your pelting of stones at Jamarat, verily Allah forgives on each pebble you throw, your grave sin and your sacrifice is preserved with your Lord and for your ‘ Tawaf-al-Ifdah’ an angel comes to you and says you act for your future as your past have been forgiven. (reported by Al-Azraqui, Al-Jundi, Al Bazzar, Ibn Mardawiya, Al-Asbhani in his Book ‘Al-Targheeb)

    ‘When you leave Arafat, remember Allah by sacred monument. Remember as He hath guided you’

    Sacred monument is another name of Al-Muzdalifa. This name is given as Adam ‘Izdalifa’ (came close) to Eve. This holy place is also called ‘Jama’ ( gathering) as the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered the Maghrib and Esha prayers together. And Sunna of the Prophet is to join these two prayers at this holy site. The joining of these prayers have been

deduced by report of Al-Bukhari. Osama bin Zaid said the Apostle of Allah  (peace be upon him) coming out of Arafat reached a col. He descended and passed urine then he took ablution but left it incomplete. But when he reached Muzdalifa he dismounted  and made ablution completing it.  Then the prayers were called (Iqamat) he offered Maghrib prayers, then again Iqamat was called he offered Esha prayers and prayed nothing in between them. These two prayers must not be offered at Arafat but only at Muzdalifa as the Prophet (peace be upon him) did. Abu Hanifa and Shafai both said even if one reaches at midnight these two prayers be offered at Muzdalifa.   

            Hajj is a blessed act, which bring unity in the whole Muslim nation. Islam has no color distinction. All the Muslims of any cast or creed stand unified, they all are equal to Allah (God the Unique).

         Ahmad Wahaj Al-Siddiqui

- By Ahmad Wahaj AlSiddiqui Al-Taimi