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Chapter I

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Muhammad the Prophet of the Prophets (peace be on him) –or- NABI-AL-ANBIA

HISTORICAL EVIDENCE CONTINUED... HERCULES CAESAR AND ABU-SUFYAN.

Narrated Abdullah bin Abbas, Allah's Apostle (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) wrote to Caesar and invited him to Islam and sent him his letter with Diha AI-KaIbi whom Allah's Apostle (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) ordered to hand it over to the Governor of Basra who would forward it to Caesar. Caesar as a sign of gratitude to God.had walked from Hims to llya (i. e. Jerusalem) When Allah had granted him victory over the Persian forces. So, when the letter of Allah's Apostle (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) reached Caesar, he said after reading it, "Seek one of his followers present here, in order to ask him about Allah's Apostle (sallallaho alaihi wasallam)." At that time Abu Sufyan bin Harb was in Sham (Syria) with some men from Quraish who had come to Sham as merchants during the truce that had been concl concluded between Allah's Apostle (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) and the infidels of Quraish. Abu Sufyan said," Caesar's messenger found us some where in Sham, so he took me and my companions to llya and we were admitted into Caesar's court to find him sitting in his Royal court wearing a crown and surrounded by the senior dignitaries of the Byzantines. He said to his translator: Ask them who among them is a close relation to the man who claims to be a Prophet." Abu Sufyan added," I replied, 'I am the nearest relative to him.' He asked," What degree of relationship do you have with him?"

I replied,' He is my cousin’, and there was none of Bani Abd Manaf in the caravan except myself.

Caesar said,' Let him come nearer.' He then ordered that my companions stand behind me near my shoulder and said to his translator,' Tell his companions that I am going to ask this man about the man who claims to be a Prophet. If he tell"; a lie, they should contradict him immediately.' Abu Sufyan added," By Allah! Had it not been shameful that my companions label me a liar, I would not have spoken the truth about him when he asked me. But I considered it shameful to be called a liar by my companions. So I told the truth. "He then said to his translator. 'Ask him what kind of family does he belong to.' I replied," He belongs to a noble family amongst us." Caesar Said, "Have anybody else amongst you ever claimed the same before him?" I replied, " No."

Caesar said," Had you ever blamed him for telling lies before he claimed what he claimed?" I replied " No."

Caesar asked," Was any body amongst his ancestors a king?" . I replied, " No."

Caesar asked, " Do the noble or poor follow him?" I replied, " It is the poor who follow him." Caesar asked, " Are they increasing or decreasing (day by day)?" I replied, "They are increasing." Caesar asked, " Does any body amongst those who embrace his (the Prophet's ) religion become displeased and discard the religion?" I replied. " No."

Caesar asked," Does he break his promises?"

I replied, " No, but we are now at truce with him and we are afraid that he may betray us." Abu Sufyan added," other than the last sentence, I could not say any thing against him (Muhammad)."

Caesar then asked, " Have you ever had a war with him?" I replied, "Yes."

Caesar asked, " What was the outcome of your battles with him?" I replied, " The result was unstable; sometimes he was victorious and some-times we."

Caesar inquired," What does he order you to do?" I said, " He tells us to worship God alone and not to seek partners with Him, and to leave all that our forefather's used to worship. He orders us to pray, give in charity, be chaste, keep promises and return what is entrusted to us." When I had said that, Caesar said to his translator, "Say to him: I asked you about his lineage and your reply was that he belonged to a noble family. In fact all the Apostles came from the noblest lineage of their nations. Then I questioned you whether any body else amongst you had claimed such a thing, and your reply was in the negative. If the answer had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man following a claim that had been said before him. When I asked you whether he was ever blamed for telling lies, your reply was in the negative, so I took it for granted that a person who did not tell a lie about others could never tell a lie about God. Then I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king. Your reply was in the negative, and if it had been in the affirmative, I would have thought that this man wanted to take back his ancestral kingdom. When I asked you whether the rich or the poor people follow him, you replied that it was the poor who followed him. In fact, such are the followers of the apostles. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing. In fact, this is the result of true faith till it is complete (in all respects). I asked you whether there was any body who, after embracing his religion, became displeased and discarded his religion; your reply was in the negative. In fact, this is the sign of true faith, for when its cheerfulness enters and mixes in the hearts completely nobody will be displeased with it. I asked whether he had ever broken his promise. You replied in the negative. And such are the apostles; they never break their promises. When I asked you whether you fought with him and he fought with you, you replied that he did, and that sometimes he was victorious and sometimes you. Indeed such are the apostles; they are put to trials and the final victory is always theirs. Then I asked you what he ordered you. You replied that he ordered you to worship God alone and not to worship others along with him, to leave all that your forefathers used to worship, to offer prayers, to speak the truth, to be chaste, to keep promises, and to return what is entrusted to you. These are really the qualities of a prophet who I knew (from the previous Scripture) would appear, but I did not know that he would be from amongst you. If what you say should be true, he will very soon occupy the earth under my feet, and If I knew that I would reach him definitely, I would go immediately to meet him; and were I with him, then I would certainly wash his feet."

Abu Sufyan added Caesar then asked for the letter of Allah's Apostle (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) and it was read. Its content were:

LETTER OF THE PROPHET

"In the name of Allah the most Beneficent, the most merciful. (This letter is) from Muhammad, the slave of Allah, and His Apostle to Hercules, the Ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon the followers of guidance. Now then I invite you to Islam (i.e. surrender to Allah), embrace Islam and you will be safe; embrace Islam and Allah will bestow on you a double reward. But if you reject this invitation of lslam, you shall be responsible for misguiding the peasants (i. e. your nation). 0 people of the Scriptures! Come to an agreement which is common between us and you, that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall not worship others along with Him; and that none of us shall take others for Lords instead of Allah (God). And if they turn away then say: Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered (unto Him). . . . (i.e. Muslims) Abu Sufyan added, "When Hercules had finished his speech, there was a great hue and cry casued by the Byzantinian Royalities surrounding him, and there was so much noise that I did not understand what they said. We were ordered to be sent out of the court. When I went out with my companions and we were alone, I said to them, verily IbnAbi Kabsha's (i. e. the Prophet's) matter has gained power. This is the king of Bani AI-Asfar (i. e. Hercules) fearing him.' Abu Sufyan added: By Allah I remained low and was sure that his religion would be victorious till Allah converted me to Islam, though (before) I disliked it" (Bukhari)

The above historical event leads us to the following conclusions:

  1. Other nations were waiting the appearance of the Prophet (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) who was to be sent towards the mankind.
  2. His qualities, habits, teachings, and his person were so much described in the Old Scriptures, that left no doubt as to the universality of his prophet-hood.
  3. Caesar's queries to Abu Sufyan were simply verification of facts mentioned in the Scriptures. After hearing Abu Sufyan, he was completely satisfied as to the appearance of the Prophet and openly declared his intention to serve him.
  4. The prophecy of the Old Scriptures that the Prophet will certainly occupy the land the then under the feet of Hercules, did happen and the Muslims occupied the entire land under Byzantine kingdom.
  5. The great hue and cry of the Byzantinian Royalities was due to the fact, that they and others considered Arabs as a degenerated nation, so they disliked the kings announcement raising their voices for expressing their dissatisfaction.

WARQUA BIN NAUFIL AND THE PROPHET (SALLALLAHO ALAIHI WASALLAM)

Syed Muhammad Badar Alam a famous Medinite scholoar referring to tradition reported in 'Bukhari', in his Book' Tarjuman al Su-nnah' writes:

"Warqua Bin Naufil a famous Christian Priest among Arab, after hearing the detail as to how the Prophet gets the revelation through angel Gabriel, from Khadija, the first mother of the faithful, said, "He is the angel who was sent to the Prophet Moses, would that had I been young in the time of your Prophet-hood, would that had I been alive when your people would turn you out (of Mecca). The Prophet inquired,' My people will turn me out.' He said 'Yes.'

The aforesaid Scholar mentioned, "this proved that people were well informed not only about the advent of the Prophet (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) but also of the events of his future life (through the Old Scriptures). The said Christian Priest described the incoming event of the Prophet's emigration, as if it was definite in happening, and it did happen.'

KING HERCULES & THE MUSLIM ENVOY

"Those who follow the messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the Gospel (which are) with them.". . . . .(7/157)

Ibn Kathir in his Book of Tafsir, giving the explanatory notes of the above revelation quoted historical evidence on the universal prophet-hood of Muhammad (sallallaho alaihi wasallam). He writes: "AI-Hakim in his Book 'AL-Mustadrak' mentioning the chain of narrators quoted from Hisham bin AI-Aas having said," I and one another man were sent as envoy to Hercules, the Roman Ruler to invite him to Islam. We reached Ghauta (Damascus). Jablah AI-Ghassani the Governor invited us to have a talk with him. 'We asserted that if you allowed us to appear before the King, we would talk with you other wise not. ' He promised and I invited him to Islam. The Governor was wearing a black dress."

Hisham asked the Governor, 'Why are you wearing the black dress. He replied, ' I have worn it taking oath that I will not put it off till I oust all of you from Syria. '

Hisham said, ' By God we shall occupy all this territory, not only this but if God wishes, also the country of your King and our Prophet (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) prophesied for it.'

He said, ' You are not among those people, the people who will take this country from us they observe fast during the day and pray during the night. How do you observe fast?'

Hisham said, 'we informed him of our fast. Immediately after hearing us his face blackened with disappointment. He asked us to get up and sent a messenger with us to the King.'

When we reached to the city, we were told that our camels cannot enter this city, if we wished, we could be given horses or mules, We refused and told them that we would not enter the city except on these animals.

The King was informed that the envoy refused to leave their camels. The King allowed and we entered the city riding on our mounts and with swords hanging on our sides, till we reached his 'Divan', and he was watching us. We knelt down our camels and raised a slogan 'There is no God but He alone, and He is the Greatest! We felt as if our slogan caused a tremor and 'Divan' was trembling like a cluster of dates quivered by air. He sent us words that we should not proclaim our religion like that and called us in. We entered and found him on a bed surrounded by Roman Patriarchs. Every thing around him was red and he was dressed in red, we came close to him. He laughed and said', "Why you didn't offer your compliments as you do among yourselves? " He had a very good Arabic translator.

We said, "We don't deem it proper to offer you our specific salutations, and your way of salutation doesn't suit us." He inquired, " How do you offer salutations among yourselves?" We said, "We say peace be on you." He said, " How do you salute your king?"

We said, "In the same manner." He inquired, " How does he reply? " We said, " With the same words." He asked. " What is your specific slogan."

We raised our voices, 'There is no God but He alone He is the Greatest. When we said the 'Divan' shook again and he raised up his head and asked, " When you say these words in your houses, do they tremble?"

We said,. "We never saw it happening except at your place." He said, ' I wish would that every thing got shaken from this slogan, and it would have made to forsake half of my country, and half remained for me." We said, "Why do you so desire?" He said, " It is better than the prophet-hood may get firm among the people."

Then he asked us the purpose of our visit. We informed him of our ; mission to call him to Islam. He questioned, " How do you observe ' fast and offer your prayers." We explained to him. He stayed us in a beautiful house for three days. After three days he called us in the night. When we appeared before him, he again asked us our purpose. We repeated what we had said. Then he asked for something with gold engravings (like a big cup-board) which had holes, and the (small) opening of each hole had a door and lock. He unlocked a door and took out a black rolled silken cloth, when he unrolled it we found sketched on it a red picture. This was the picture of a man having big eyes, heavy thy and such a long neck which we had never seen before, with beard and long beautiful hairs parted in two. He (Hercules) asked us if we knew him. We said, "No." He said, " This is Adam." He had a lot of hair on his body" He opened another lock, and took out a cloth of black silk, on it was the picture of a man of white complexion, curly hair, red ball eyes, big head and a beautiful beard. He said, "Do you know him?" We replied in negative. He said, "this is the picture of Noah. "Having unlocked another door he took out a picture sketched on black silk, of a very white man, beautiful eyes, broad forehead, big cheeks, white beard and smiling face. He asked us, if we knew him. We replied in the negative. He said: This is Abraham." He opened another door, we found in it a white picture, and By God it was the picture of our Prophet Muhammad (sallallaho alaihi wasallam). He asked us about it and we said it was the picture of our Prophet, and looking at it our eyes filled with tears. He said, "God knows, he is Muhammad, the Prophet:'Then he stood and sat (as if perturbed), inquiringly he again asked us," Is he the same man?" We said yes"He is our Prophet"(sallallaho alaihi wasallam). He gazed on the picture for a little while and said, "This was the last one, but I placed it before you hastily, to test your integrity." He uncovered another picture drawn on black silk, brownish complexion, soft face with curly hair, deep sharp eyes, irascible face, well set teeth and fat lips. He asked us if we knew him. We replied in the negative. He said that was Moses.

There was another picture by its side which has some resemblance with the first picture, but it had oiled and combed hair, and broad forehead, he asked if we knew him. We said, "No." He said, " He is Aaron son of Imran'.'Opening another door he took out white silk, on it was a picture of brown colour, of medium height, straight hair, and choleric face. He asked us if we knew him. He told it was Lut. He opened another door and took out on white silk, the picture of a man nearly white complexion, with a deep red beautiful face with light cheeks, he asked us if we knew him. We said, "No." He told us'.he was Isaac'.'Taking out another white silk, he showed us a picture resembling Isaac, except on its lip was a mole. He asked us if we knew him. we said, "No." He said he was Jacob. Opening another door he took out on a black silk, the picture of a man of white complexion, beautiful solemn face with a reddish nose, of good stature. He asked us if we knew him. We said, "No." He said he was Ismail, the ancestor of your Prophet. Opening another door he took out a picture of a man on white silk, resembling to Adam, with a sunny face. He asked us if we knew him. We said, "No." He said, "This is Joseph." Opening another door he took out a picture of a man on white silk of red complexion, thick shins, small eyes and of medium height, with a hanging sword. He asked us if we knew him. We said, "No." He said he was David. Opening another hole, he took out a picture of a man on white silk, with heavy thies long legs, mounted on a horse.

He asked us if we knew him. We replied in negative. He said thai was Soloman son of David. Opening another hole he unfolded a black silk on it was white picture of a young man, with a black beard and thick hair. He asked us if we knew him. We said, "No." He said, "This is Jesus Christ." we asked him, "How did he get these pictures?" We got sure that these pictures would certainly have been of the prophets, as we had found the picture of our prophet. .He said, "Adam requested God to show him the pictures of the prophets in his descent, so God sent him the pictures. Adam preserved them in the west of his Kingdom. Zulqarnain got them and it were passed on to 'Daniel". Then he said, “He wanted to leave his country and enslave himself to any one lowest among us, till he died. He departed us very honourably giving us presents and arranged our return journey. When we came back to the first Califh Abu Bakar (radiallah-anho), we narrated (the entire event) i.e. what we were told and what we were shown, and what was presented to us. His eyes filled with tears, and said, "Had Allah willed, He would have certainly guided him."

A similar event has been reported with King Maquqas of Egypt and Mughira bin Shoba, wherein King Maquqas asked many questions and after getting satisfied he also testified that Muhammad (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) is the true Prophet for whom Jesus Christ had given glad tidings and ordered to follow him.

Imam Bukhari in his Book of 'History' reported, 'narrated Jubair that when he reached Basra he met some Christian Priests who took him to a church and showed him the picture of the Prophet. Jubair confirmed them that it was the picture of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaho alaihi wasallam). The Christian Priest also told him that after every prophet there came some prophet but after Muhammad there would not be any prophet.'

History recorded other similar events all prove that the advent of the Prophet (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) was well renowned through out the Christian and Jewish world. They not only had undeniable signs told by the prophet of their times, but also they had pictures of the Prophet (sallallaho alaihi wasallam) which left them no place to carry any doubt as to his great personality. That is the reason that the Holy Quran lays down:

"Those unto whom we gave the Scripture recognise him (Muhammad) as they recognise their sons."

  1. See part 3 of this book
  2. The word advocate is written in the New English Bible 1970.
  3. John 14:16,15:26, and 16:7.
  4. See part III for further details ch: Nabi-AI-Anbia and Faith.