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Chapter VIII

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The reasons of downfall of the Muslims

Winston Churchill, the famous Prime Minister of Great Britain, was formerly an army officer. Churchill had participated in war between the British and the Muslims at Omdurman (Sudan). In an article*1 In an article 'The Cavalry Charge at Omdurman,' Sir Churchill wrote the account of the battle:

"Ancient and modern confronted one another. The weapons, the methods and the fanaticism of the Middle Ages were brought by extraordinary anachronism into dire collision with the organization and inventions of the nineteenth century. The result was not surprising." "The whole of the Khalifa's army, nearly sixty thousand strong, advanced in battle order.... As the successors of the Saracens descended the long smooth slopes which led to the river and their enemy, they encountered the rifle fire of two and a half divisions of trained infantry, drawn up two deep and in close order and supported by at least 70 guns at the river bank and in the gunboats, all firing with undisturbed efficiency. Under this fire the whole attack withered and came to a stand-still, with a loss of perhaps six or seven thousand men, at least 700 yards away from the British-Egyptian line. The Dervish army, however, possessed nearly 20,000 thousand rifles of various kinds, from the most antiquated to the most modern."

In spite of this severe loss the Muslim force continued its advance. Churchill further wrote:

"All these swarms now advanced with undaunted courage to attack the British and Egyptian forces,....The charging Dervishes succeeded in coming to within a hundred or two hundred yards of the troops, and the rear Brigade of Sudanese, attacked from two directions, was only saved from destruction by the skill and firmness of its commander. General Hector Macdonald. However, discipline and machinery triumphed over the most desperate velour, and after an enormous carnage, certainly exceeding 20,000 men, who strewed the ground in heaps and swathes "like snow drifts," the whole of the Dervishes dissolved in fragments and into particles and streamed away into the fantastic mirages of the desert."

The British could subjugate the Muslim states only on account of their supremacy in war resources.

Japan who had beaten the British forces in many battles, in the second world war and occupied Singapore, was finally crushed by two atomic bombs.

In the second world war. Hitler brought terrible death and destruction. He had beaten France and driven the British army out of Europe. This was a great victory to Germany but she still had to beat Britain to win the war. Inspite of all the scientific advancements in war weapons. Hitler lagged behind in one invention. That was radar. Britains had developed radar before the second world war but Germans couldn't. British pilots were able to shoot at the German machines before the Germans saw them. It was used in every big battle on land, at sea, and in the air. Finally this only invention made the allied forces to win over Germany. A German officer said, "We succeeded with radar too late"*1 when the war ended.

The greatest reason for the Muslims downfall all over the world was decline in modern knowledge. In seventeenth and eighteenth century, there were many educational advancements bringing new inventions to Europe. The communication and the transportation was revolutionized. The new war weapons were invented. The European nations had very effective war material. To the contrary the Muslims had none. The attacks of Mongol herds brought death and destruction even to the Muslim's educational advancement. Many libraries were utterly destroyed. The Muslims did not undertake the use of the modern inventions of Europe, with the result the Muslims could not achieve any development in war technique. By and by many Muslim countries were subjugated by European nations.

After the second world war the conditions changed. Though Britain and her allies won the war, yet they became so weak that they could not hold back their possessions into the different countries of the world. So gradually many countries got their independence. Yet the Muslims did not take any lesson from their past history of subjugation and treachery within their ranks. They are very rich in resources of power and lack nothing of the worldly wealth, but what they lack is the conjoint effort to grow into world power. Would that the Muslim World League had taken some solid steps to achieve honour and prestige for Muslims to grow into world power.

  1. This article has been published in a Book, "Men at War" by Ernest Hemingway.
  2. Man Against Nature by Norman Wymer Chapter Radar