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Chapter II

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The Modern Science Proves

THE PROPHET-HOOD OF THE CHIEF OF THE PROPHETS

Before proceeding with the scientific arguements in proof of the prophet-hood of Muhammad Mustafa (sallallaho alaihi wasallam), we ought to peep into the background that existed before the descent of the Quran.

If we try to perceive into any scientific development at the time of the descent of the Quran we shall fall into utter darkness, as one thousand four hundred years ago, the modern science was unknown to human mind. The few traces of the knowledge were in the shape of Torah. The Psalms of David, and the Bible. The original version of these Books were lost, the Jews and the Christian scholars had written (9) them on their own. If we value these books, we can say these were nothing but scattered pieces of historical events of few prophets carrying no chain of evidence in their narrations. The Babylonic, Egyptian and the Greek cultures were buried. Few traces of fine arts were available in the shape of pyramids, the only leftover of the Egyptian cultures but that to was obsolete. Nothing but ruins could be seen of the Roman culture. The Muslim scholars revived the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Socrates.

Later many of their ideas were proved false by the science (10). In short, nothing was known of them before Islam. The men had learnt to write, but even then, no development could be recorded in any field of life. The meanings of communication were limited to mules, asses, horses and camels or some small sailboats ran into the rivers and seas. The astronomy was no more than some whimsical ideas. Many populated lands were unknown. Fourteen hundred years before the man did not know the matter and its elements, they never had any telescope to see the stars wrongfully fancied that stars ruled the destinies of the people. They thought that earth was a plain surface, it never occurred to them that it was round. Few worshipped the sun and called it sun god. They thought that it rises, it sets and emits heat, it runs right east to west and to them only a god could emit heat and make such a long run. They were unaware of the effects of the winds nor did they know the layers of the atmosphere. If at all there existed any knowledge that too did not reach to the inhabitants of Arabian Peninsula. Few took insult in marrying their daughters and buried them alive. Few lived on gambling, theft and loot, the day today fights and wars among the tribes were common. The two famous powers of those times, Chosroes of Persia and Caesar of Rome knew them as mean and ignorant. The only ardour of learning among them was of Arabic poetry. Spontaneously they could say any number of the couplets. They fully know the fluency and eloquence of the Arabic language. Few of the poets of the days of ignorance were so famous that their poetry is still taught in the school and collages.

Hospitality, generosity and to stand fast with their vows were their chief characteristics. Allah inclined towards them with mercy. He selected one of them as his Prophet. Muhammad Mustafa ((sallallaho alaihi wasallam)) was brought up among them. He was unlettered and could not read and write. The angel Gabriel descended upon him with first revelation giving good news:

"He who taught man that he knew not."

Glory be to God, He taught mankind through his Prophet. He revealed many facts in His Book, the Quran, which could be unveiled only after modern scientific development i.e. almost one thousand years or more after descent of the Quran proving it undoubtedly to be a book of god which was revealed to the unlettered Prophet to stand as his living miracle till the Hour.

QURAN THE EXPONENT SCIENCE

Quran is the book, which brought humanity from prescientific age to the age of rationalism. The very first book to be invited mankind to observe and contemplate the phenomena of nature, which we experiences in ourselves and in the continuum surrounding us by our five senses of perception, these include the phenomena of life and death, the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alteration of the day and night, sailing of the ships, the rains which, is sent down from the sky which revive the earth after death, and in scattering the animal life, the changing of the winds, the trailing of the clouds between the sky and the earth. All this phenomena of nature contains the tokens or signs of God to believe in his divine omnipotence. (2/164)

FIRST REVELATION AND THE SCIENCE OF THE CREATION OF MAN.

The Prophet was born in the midst of idolatry and polytheism of Makkah. But from his very childhood he kept himself away from the environment around him.

He was very much perturbed over the idol worship of his folk, and kept wandering (11) in quest of the truth. He used to go to mount Hira, which still has a cave facing Kaaba for meditation. It was there at the age of forty he received the first revelation:-

"Read in the name of thy lord who created, Who created man from something that clings, Read ! Thy Lord is the most Bountiful, Who taught by the pen, Who taught man what he did not know." (96/1-5)

The very first line invited our attention to the Lord, the Creator and to His creation, then disclosing a scientific fact as to creation of man, the Quran said, the man is created with something, which clings. There are other verses too, which explain the processing of the embryo I quote here few of them:-

"Verily We created man form a drop of mingled liquids to test him, So We make him hearing and knowing." (76/2)

"He made all things good which He had created and He began the creation of man from clay. Then He made his (i.e. man's) progeny from a quintessence of despised liquid, Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit; and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts." (32/7 - 9)

"Thinketh man that he is to be left in vain? Was he not a drop fluid (sperm out of semen) which gushed forth ? Thereafter he became 'Alaqua' (i.e. something that clings) And made of him a pair, the male and female. Has He not the power to bring back the dead to life." (75/36 - 40)

"He it is Who created you from dust, then from a sperm drop then from something which clings then bringeth you forth as a child." (40/67)

The beauty in the description of the above Quranic verses is that modern science could not add any such fact, which relates to the processing, of embryo in the womb and Quran does not mention the same.

Before we discuss the science of the formation and development of the embryo, it may be noted that the views of Aristotle (384-322BC) were predominant. He was of the view that actual creation and formation of the embryo was from the menstrual blood. To him the process resembled the curdling of milk into cheese.

In the first quarter of the 7th century A.D., the Quran brushed off the views of Aristotle telling that Allah created man from a drop of mingled liquids (of both male and female). (76/2) Ibn Kathir explaining the word 'Amshaj' (mingled liquids) said, "Its root is from 'Mashaja' means to mix and 'Masheej' means (gamete) (12) mixed with another. Ibn Abbas explaining the verse said, "It means the semen of the man and woman intermingled and then it passes through various stages. God said,

"He created you in diverse stages." (71/14)

However, Europe remained stuck to the stupid notions of Aristotle, until Redi in 1668 dealt a blow to his theory and Pasteur in 1864 wrote the final obituary to the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Later Van Banden in 1883 proved that both male and female participated equally in the formation of human zygote.

Thus, what was said by the Quran, was finally upheld by the scientists after about 1300 years of scientific ignorance regarding the creation of man. The Quran said:-

"Was he not a drop of fluid which gushed forth."

It is also now proved that the total semen ejaculated contains an average of 200 to 300 million of spermatozoa, only one out of these huge numbers fertilizes the ovum to form the zygotes, which grows into a baby. The Arabic word 'Nutfa' translated as a drop of fluid is singular, thus we can safely say that 'nutfa' is that spermatozoa which causes fertilization. The word 'nutfatin amshaj' further established these meaning i.e. male spermatozoa mixed with female cell causes fertilization to form zygotes. This fertilization stage is described in the word 'alaq' something that attaches to the uterus (womb). The Quran describes the next stage as 'mudgha' meaning the chewed lump i.e. a mass having teeth mark on it. In the early 7th century i.e. at the time of descent of the Quran, no one in the world could know this stage of embryo's development. Only in the 20th century the scientists could observe it and they call, it a somite stage. After this stage, there comes another stage as told by Quran:

"Then fashioned We the chewed lump into bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh,"

The 20th century scientists have observed all these stages of the embryo's development and after a long denial of about 1300 years, the Quranic facts have now been confirmed.

It was impossible for a man living in the early 7th century to have expressed such facts, so it is foolish to say that Muhammad ((sallallaho alaihi wasallam)) wrote the Quran. One has to accept that this is the book of God. And God in his very first revelation expressed the creation of man by fertilization (alaq) i.e. by clinging of the male and female cells with each other.

  1. Please see vol: I part III of this book, 'The Biblical Scholars acknowledge the unreliability of their Gospels. pp 201-213.
  2. G.H. Wells in this "Outlines of History" Commenting on Greek scientific knowledge and methodology says, "They had no knowledge of the past of mankind, they had no knowledge of geography beyond the range of the Mediterranean Basin and the frontiers of Persia. Their astronomical ideas were in a state of rudimentary speculation. One has to remember their extraordinary poverty in the matter of experimental apparatus. They had no accurate measuring of the minor intervals of time, and no really efficient numerical notation, no very accurate scales or rudiments of telescope.
  3. Surah 92/7
  4. Elias Modern Dictionary Arabic - English 1974.