The Quran & The Science of The Earth
Under the heading ‘STARS AND PLANETS’ I have jotted down few arguments from the Holy Quran which prove the motion of the earth and in Testimony 14th (Ch: Bodily Ascent) I have proved the axial and orbital rotation of the earth.
Now we shall peep into the Quran to find what further facts have been stated about the earth sciences:
He created the heavens and the earth with true (wisdom) He rolls the night over the days and rolls the day over the night, He has subdued the sun and the moon. All running for an appointed time. Is He not the Mighty, the Forgiver. (39/5)
He created the heaven and the earth with great wisdom. The greatness of this creation has been discussed in previous pages. In describing the rolling the night over the day the Arabic word, ‘Yukawwar’ has been used. It means to coil or to roll on an axis, the word proves the circular movement of a thing. As the day and the night occur on planet Earth, therefore, the word ‘Yukawwar’ proves it being globular, and that it is moving on its axis. Further coiling or rolling of a thing happens only on a thing, which has some circular shape. Thus, due to a rolling of the earth on its axis from west to east, continually a part of it gradually faces the sun whereas the other part of it hides from the sun. In this way, day and night are continually happening. It is, therefore, that the Quran mention both the rolling of the night over the day and the rolling of the day over the night together in aforesaid verse. From the below it is obvious that the Quran proved the rounded shape of the earth with its rotation 1400 years ago.
To show the movements of the planet earth the Quran mentioned the rolling of the night over the day and the day over the night and then it mentioned the subduing of the sun and the moon, to show the movement of all these three, the Quran use the words (Kullun yajri) all running. In Arabic grammar, we have three forms of speech, the singular, (mufrad), tathnia for two things and for three or more we have plural . So the word ‘Kullun’ (all) includes the earth, (over which the night and the day or rolling) the sun and the moon. We shall later see that the Quran used the form of speech ‘Tathnia’ (for two things) when it mention the sky and the earth only. The Arabic word ‘yajri’ means running, and we all now know that the earth, the moon and the sun all are running in their appointed orbits very swiftly. The aforesaid verse also mentioned that their motion and velocity is not for indefinite period, but it is for an appointed time. The scientists have now accepted the death of the sun (see Stars and Planet).
It is now obvious that our solar system will be put to its final doom. The beauty of the earlier 7th century revelation in question is that in two lines it mentioned the motion and the velocity of the earth, the sun and the moon and their final destruction whereas the scientists could nod in agreement on these hard and fast facts only in 20th century.
The only difference between the faithful and the modern scientists is that we do not accept the final doom of the sun and the earth etc. on their estimated time but it shall happen whenever God so intends.
The Holy Quran further says about the earth:
And We have said mountains on the earth, lest it should shake with them (people). And we have made therein ravines (ways) to pass through that haply they may find their ways.(21/31)
The Arabic word ‘Tameeda’ used in the above verse mean shake. Allah has created the earth with mountain so that it may not shake. It is to be noted that in an earthquake only a part of the earth, which falls under the belt of the earthquake shakes, but Allah set in the mountain to stop the shaking of the entire earth at a time. This is what the revelation in citation explains.
Now only that body can shake which has some motion. To the contrary if a body is affixed on a certain thing, it cannot shake, e.g. a high building. Had our earth been a fixed body like a building, the question of its shaking would have not arisen.
20. See (S.XXXV-41)
Therefore, the Quranic word ‘Tameeda’ proves that the earth is not a body, which stands affixed, but it is a body, which has motion and everything, which has motion or velocity is required to be kept in perfect balance for remaining stable in its course so that it may not shake.
This principle of equilibrium is maintained in everything, which has motion. The man moves on his two legs, the animals on four and the birds fly on their wings. The boats are shaped properly to make them float into the water, they get capsized if the balance is lost. A vehicle in motion over turns if a wheel escaped from it. The wings of an aeroplane (21) make the flight stable in its course and stop it from swaying. Similarly to keep the earth rotate stably on its axis, and run in its orbit, it was necessary to maintain its balance, therefore, the Creator of the earth set mountains on it so that while rotating on its axis at speed of 1038 miles per hour and moving on its orbit at the speed of 66,600 miles per hour, it should not sway or shake. These mountains also guide the men, on some places they determine the boundaries of the countries. In spite of their height they have terrain to pass through.
Speaking about the heavens and the earth the Holy Quran says:
Lo! Allah grasped the heaven and the earth that they both deviate not and if they both were to deviate, there is not one who could sustain these both after Him. Lo! He is clement forgiving. (35/41)
Allah declared his Omnipotence in the above revelation says that He sustains the Heaven and the earth by His command.
Ibn Kathir the famous exegete of the Holy Quran translated the Arabic word ‘Tazula’ in the aforesaid verse saying, ‘if they both get deviated from their places. And in the book ‘Al Mufarradat Al Ghareeb Al Quran’ the root word zula means to deviate from its track. So far human wisdom could not reach to the constituents of the heavens or the canopy over us, but it is already preceded that the heaven and the earth were conjoined in a gaseous mass. And in verse referring to the Doomsday the sky will bring forth a visible smoke. (44/10) In a narration from Huzaifa (radiallah anho), the Prophet (sallallaho alaihi wasallem) said: For about forty days it i.e. smoke will fill the east and the west…(Ibn Jarir) In another verse the heaven will be splitted asunder and will become rosy like red hide. (55/37) So as narrated in the verse in question, there is a possibility of the sky’s dissolving or deviating from its place.
However, the word ‘Tazula’ proves the motion for both the heaven and the earth and only that body can deviate which is not fixed. The root word ‘Zala’ also means cease to function and only such body can cease to function which has some movement in it.
Now it is evident like a crystal ball that if the earth deviates from its track no power whatsoever can bring it back to its course. It is therefore, God said,
“And of his signs is this that the heaven and the earth keep to their (appointed) places (22) i.e. to their orbits by His command.” (30/25)
The deviation of the earth from its course is not a very remote notion because our scientists say that our earth has its own magnetic field and has its own power of gravitation, however, its motion and velocity are bound by solar gravitation. The application of power involves the consumption of energy. The scientists have already agreed to the death of the sun, the magnetic fields, having used up, all the celestial bodies can deviate from their courses, can collide and collapse. Quite possibly due to the decrease of the solar gravitational pull or otherwise the earth can deviate from its course. Thus, the Holy Quran had long before described the existence of our solar system for an appointed time. In the above revelation, it mentioned the possibility of the earth deviating from its track. And if the heaven and the earth both deviate from their places or courses, only Allah the Almighty can sustain both of them.
The Arabic verse under explanation has a subtle hint, it has the form of speech for two things only. The verse hints only two bodies, the earth and the heaven, whereas in the verse already preceded (39/5) the Quran used the plural form of the speech for three or more things and mentioned the velocity of the sun, moon, and the earth as the day and night occur on the planet Earth.
In short, 1400 years before the people were unaware of the solar system and in that pre-scientific age Allah the Omniscient, through His Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaho alaihi wasallem) stated such facts in His Book which are now being upheld all over the world. Few verses mention the motion of the moon and few of the sun. Few express the varied motions of the stars and few speak of their perdition. Few established the axial rotation of the earth, and few specify its orbital motion. Few say of its maintaining the balance and few of its being globular.
Briefly, this account of the ignorance age is amazing the human wisdom. The earth is running at the speed of 66,600 miles per hour and the Quran also says that:
It is flying with the flight of clouds. (23) (27/88)
The earth with its billions of tons of weight is flying in its orbit. The Quran with the word ‘Yukawwar’ expressed its being globular. It is spherical and at the same time, it has plain surface. It is why that the Quran sounding a note of exclamation said Do they not look!... at the earth, how it is spread. (88/ 20)
The scientist say, to an aunt the football has an even surface, similarly, we the living being see this spherical body having a plain surface. Explaining again the peculiarity of the creation with a note of exclamation the Quran said:
And the earth We laid out. How excellently We do laid it out! (51/48)
Pointing to the future development on the earth the Quran said:
Verily they have schemed their plot and their plot is with Allah though their plot should move the mountains. Never think that Allah will fail to keep His promise to His messengers. Lo! Allah is Mighty. Able to requite (the wrong doers). (14/-46-47)
The Arabic words used in the verse, “Latazula minho al jibal” means that the mountains may be made to move, or remove or vanish (by their device). In earlier 7th century, nobody could conceive the removal or elimination of mountains in part or in full. That is why Imam Razi in his ‘Tafsir’ wrote, “ The news to its actual occurrence is not intended,” that is to say the plot is here means development to the extent that unbelievers may be able to remove the mountains even then God will not fail to punish the unbelievers. Imam Razi and earlier exegete could not conceive the elimination of mountains, therefore, he wrote his above comments. But now the scientific development reached to such an stage that the mountains can be made to disappear by bombardment. Such dynamites are made which can bore the tunnels in the strongest strata. We did see the actual occurrence of the news given by the Quran and Makkah the place of descent of the Quran in itself has become the city of 56 tunnels built through mountains.
Whatsoever progress may be achieved but God will never fail to keep His promise and the unbelievers will be punished, as they are the wrong doers.
MASTERS OF THE EARTH
The Holy Quran drawing the similitude of life and the pointing to the future progress of the earthmen said:
The similitude of the life of the world is only as rain which We send down from the sky and by its mingling arises the produce of earth which men and cattle eat.Till when the earth hath taken on her golden ornaments,and is decorated gracefully, and her people deem they aremasters of her. Our commandment cometh to her (earth) by day or by night, and we (shall) make it as raped corn as if she had not flourished yesterday. Thus, do we expound the signs for people who reflect. (10/24)
A parable is drawn in the above verse to explain the nature of our present life. We all know the rains revive life of the earth and draughts result in vast calamity and death. Rains and draughts are the temporary phases of life, but here the Holy Quran does not restrict the argument to it, but speaks forecasting the amazing progress, which the earthmen shall achieve. In this, respect the Quran particularly mentions the graceful golden decoration of the earth, which will be done by the men here. And certainly the history could never record such an astonishing advancement as attained in 20th century due to scientific inventions. The beautiful cities with skyscrapers, the means of transportation, the means of communications, radio, television, wireless telephone and the modern means of farming, all these have clad the earth almost in golden ornaments. Not only this but the Quran speaks of something most astonishing which 7th century brain could have never deemed of i.e. ‘Wa zanna ahloha annahum qadroon alaiha’ meaning and her people shall deem they are masters of her (earth).
Imam Razi (Rhazes) says that the pronoun her in the Arabic verse reverts to the earth, but carrying his own notion he interpreted that the produce of the earth is intended, because in his times nobody could dream that the man will ever attempt to obtain the mastery over the Planet Earth.
The scientists after the atomic age invented rockets and satellites. They were able to throw the satellites with the help of rockets above the earth to rotate with the orbital motion of the earth. The earth’s gravitational pull keeps them always in the same place. These inventions gave birth to space stations and finally the advanced world entered into the star wars. Now the free world America, her allies, and their opponent the Russians etc. are attempting to control the world through their satellites.
Thus, the 7th century forecast of the Quran is taking its real shapes, the time does not seem to be very far when the earthmen may become the masters of the earth.
The Quran says when the earthmen will deem that they have achieved the mastery over the earth. The command of God will come by day or by night to destroy the earth. That is to say whatsoever may be the progress, the earthmen will not be able to avoid the decree of God about them.
Mentioning coming of the commandment by day or by night the Quran does not pin point that it will come by day or by night but it mentions both the day or by night. Mentioning of ‘by day or by night’ conceal His Great Wisdom and prove He is Omniscient of all things. We know the planet earth being globular carries day and night at the same time. So when the commandment of Allah comes to destroy her, apart of the world shall be having day whereas the other part shall be having night. Thus, part of the verse ‘by day or by night’ proves the earth having been globular has its axial rotation.
Imam Razi referring to ‘Al Zujaj’ says, “Ka an lam taghne bil ams’ mean as if nothing was build in her, in this narration the entire earth is purported. “And referring to the verse, ‘Thus We expound the signs’ Ibn Abbas says this means, “We (God) explains in this Quran the destruction of the world.” (nobayyan al Quran fi fana al dunya).
Thus, the Quran’s 7th century forecast did point out the 20th century scientific development for attempting to attain control over the planet Earth. These efforts may be fruitful in far future but then Allah’s command will rein supreme to destroy this world and later its resurrection for reckoning of its people. The Quran’s saying: We expound the signs for people who reflect, further substantiates that the verses in question are not explaining mere rains and draughts, but there are some very hard and fast facts for observation of the truth to believe in Him and in His Prophet Muhammad (sallallaho alaihi wasallem). So that the earthmen may attain His reward in the Paradise and avoid His tortures which he had appointed for the unbelievers.